The use of energy efficient lighting in dwellings in combination with the preservation or the improvement of the visual comfort is a huge challenge. This paper presents a lighting renovation project applied to six similar apartments, at various levels. It shows that if the lighting installation is left to the occupants, the installed power is very low and/or the illuminance target is not reached. Replacing low efficient incandescent lamps by fluocompact lamps induces high energy saving but do not assure to reach the goal illuminance value. Like for the tertiary field, a good lighting design can only result from the combination of high efficient lamps with efficient ballasts and specific luminaires. Manufacturer should design more efficient residential luminaires and improve the information given on the packaging. Innovation guidelines for residential lighting system are given as conclusion of the paper.